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Author Guidelines

General Instructions

Contributors should submit an editable, electronic version of an original manuscript that has not been published and is not under consideration elsewhere. The Excellence in Higher Education Journal follows the style and citation guidelines in this document. For all other style and citation questions, you should refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition B (a link to The Chicago Manual of Style online website can be found at:

Acronyms or abbreviations should be written out at first mention in the text--for example, World Health Organization (WHO). Include the first name or first initial of an author the first time the name is mentioned in the text.

Standardization throughout the article is a must. We suggest having one person go through and edit the entire manuscript (MS) for consistency. This includes such items as,

  • Grade levels: we would like you to use “Grade 1,” “Grade 2,” or “Grades 2 and 3” instead of “8th grade” or “sixth grade.”
  • For foreign terms in the body of the text, use italics. Translations of foreign terms should follow in parenthesis, for example: …this refers to the so-called erji xueyuan (the second-tier colleges), duli xueyuan (independent colleges), and fenxiao (branch campuses).
  • Be sure to follow The Chicago Manual of Style requirements for when to spell out numbers and when to use Arabic numbers throughout the MS. Numbers 1-10 should be spelled out, while numbers 11 or above should be in Arabic numerals. The only exception to this rule would be if numbers are used as percents as in the case of “3 percent” or “9.5 percent;” it could not be written as “three percent.”
  • When referring to chapters in the body of the text use Arabic numerals by typing “Chapter 1” or “Chapters 3 and 15” rather than “Chapter One” or “Chapters Three and Fifteen.”
  • Use an initial capital letter when referring to “Whites,” “Blacks,” “African Americans,” etc.
  • The spelling out of the number preceding the word “century.” For instance, use “nineteenth century” rather than “19th century.”
  • Em-dashes—like those that set off this phrase—should be typed as two hyphens with no space on either side.
  • Use the hyphen “-” rather than the “–” in between page numbers, years, and other numbers in the text.
  • Number Tables and Figures according to chapter and then figure or table number (e.g., Table 1.1 for Table 1 in Chapter 1, and so on). In the text, refer readers to Table 1.1 (or Figure 2.3) rather than giving page numbers or using general terms such as “above” or “below.” Reference all tables and figures in the body of the text.
  • Foreign currencies: Currency types should follow the amount provided in the body of the text (e.g., Chinese renminbi should be written as such: 5,300 RMB and not ¥5,300). When using currency symbols (e.g., $, €) the text should read “US$100” or “€100” instead of “$100,” “100 dollars,” or “100 Euros.”
  • Use “PhD” rather than “Ph.D.” and “MA” rather than “M.A.”
  • Years should be written as “1990s” and “1970-1980” rather than “1990’s” and “1970-80.”
  • For parentheses, three sorts of symbols are commonly used to group mathematical expressions: parentheses (), brackets [], and braces {}. They are used in pairs, and their normal order is {[()]} (refer to CMS 5th Ed., 14.25 Common Delimiters or Fences).
  • When using parentheses and brackets in the body of the text for non-mathematic purposes, the order should be ([]). An example of this would be (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] 2008).


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.

    2. Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.

    3. The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons 4.0 License (Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works), or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
      1. Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
      2. Noncommercial—other users (including Publisher) may not use this Work for commercial purposes;
      3. No Derivative Works—other users (including Publisher) may not alter, transform, or build upon this Work,with the understanding that any of the above conditions can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.

    4. The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

    5. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a pre-publication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.

    6. Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.

    7. The Author represents and warrants that:

      1. the Work is the Author’s original work;
      2. the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
      3. the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
      4. the Work has not previously been published;
      5. the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
      6. the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
    8. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.


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